If you are an oil palm farmer, or an intending farmer, you no doubt are familiar with these terms: dura, pisifera, and tenera. Why should you pay attention to them? Do they impact your yield?
Why Consider the Quality of Seed to Plant?
One important reason is: your choice of which of them to plant will determine your success or failure.
- Oil palms can produce good yields for 25—30 years.
- Good quality seeds will make you smile to the bank often because they will produce good palms that give very large yields.
- Seeds of poor quality will give a poor yield for 25 years of regrets over what you easily could have painlessly controlled.
Let me explain this clearer using a picture…
From the picture above, which of these seeds would you think would interest a real oil palm farmer? The dura or tenera?
The answer is obvious because normal palm oil (called crude palm oil or ‘CPO’) is extracted from the yellow flesh, which is also called ‘mesocarp’ and not from the brown/black woody ring between the yellow flesh and the white kernel which has no oil.
Although, oil can also be extracted from the white kernel, and this oil is called ‘palm kernel oil’ or ‘PKO’. However, this is not the focus of this post as our primary concern is palm oil.
Here below is the breakdown of the tree hybrids as can be seen from the picture above.
Dura: This is the mother of a hybrid oil palm. Dura fruits have a thick shell.
Pisifera: This is the father of a hybrid oil palm . Pisifera fruits have no shell at all
Tenera: The cross between dura and pisifera palms is a hybrid called tenera.
Hybrid tenera fruits have a thin shell and the palms produce up to 30 percent more oil than their parents! Amazing, right?
But here is something you probably are thinking about…
“Since Pisifera contains no kernel, will it not produce more palm oil from its mesocarp than tenera?”
The answer is simple: You hardly will find pisifera hybrid in plantations because Pisifera palms usually don’t produce any fruit at all. In other words, they are sterile, so the FFB yield is generally zero.
This leaves us with only tenera and dura as far as oil production is concerned.
You will realize that any farmer who spends his hard earned money planting dura or pisifera is heading for regret.
With dura, he will make less than half of his normal yield.
With pisifera, he will lose his investment, but with tenera, it is profit all way. Imagine that this lasts for at least 25 years.
Would you like to see the yield comparison among these 3 hybrids?In my earlier post titled: Lies About Oil Palm Farming-Part 1 you will see a table breakdown the possible yield differences you can expect from these hybrids. You will then appreciate why you cannot afford to gamble with dura.
I hope this post has broadened your view on these oil palm varieties. If you have enjoyed it, drop a comment below. Have any question, send me a mail via firstname.lastname@example.org or drop it in the comment box.
Since it is easy to pick tenera seeds from established plantations, will it not be economically wise to pick these fruits, nurse them and produce seedlings?
Will they not produce tenera palms, since they came from tenera? I will address that subject in my next post.